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Farming in the Age of Climate Change

Eamon Molloy

by Azul Tellez Wright

A few weeks ago, I attended an event hosted by Friends of Family Farmers titled “Farming in the Age of Climate Change”. The room was filled with farmers, people in the nonprofit sector, and community members interested in how climate change is affecting our small, local farmers. Farmers spoke about the changes they are experiencing due to climate change and the mitigation tactics they are using to adapt to it.

“Climate change in the Pacific Northwest will not have the same effects as the rest of the world,” says Anne Berblinger of Gales Meadow Farms. Farmers in the Pacific Northwest are currently experiencing or can expect to experience the following effects:

  • More days in the 90s and 100s causing interference with plant growth and pollination. Flowering produce such as peppers and tomatoes need to be pollinated or else their flowers will fall off and no fruit will grow.

  • Increase in the number of smoky days, which, combined with hotter days will create unhealthy working conditions. Anne Berblinger reported that there were ten days last year with unworkable conditions.

  • Limited water for irrigation caused by regional water shortages.

  • Excessive winter rain as a result of warmer temperatures in the atmosphere.

  • Milder winters leading to increase in weeds and insects, who thrive in warmer temperatures.

While these effects pose serious challenges, farmers are nothing if not resilient and adaptable. What are farmers doing to mitigate the effects of climate change? Many farmers have begun to focus more of their attention on reducing their carbon footprint on the farm.

Zach Menchini of Campfire Farms in Mulino, Oregon, shared that the feed he gives his livestock account for most of his carbon emissions. In order to offset this, he has planted 15 acres of trees on his property. Trees sequester carbon out of the atmosphere, thus making up for the carbon emitted through the production of his pig feed.
Anne Berblinger of Gales Meadow Farm has been experimenting with Dry Farming, a method of farming without irrigation. This means that plants do not receive water (except rainwater) after seeding or transplanting. Anne says that dry farming results in lower yields but much better flavor than irrigated crops. She has experimented with different varieties of plants to find which ones are successful in dry farming, such as the Red Pontiac Potato. Over 100 farmers in Oregon are using dry farming through an OSU Small Farms program that teaches farmers this alternative farming method.

Other methods of mitigating climate change include:

  • Planting earlier in the calendar year since it becomes warmer sooner. Some farmers are planting their tomates as soon as May 21st.

  • Being vigilant about looking for new pests and weeds.

  • Adding more organic materials to the soil to increase water retention.

Next week, I’ll be covering House Bill 2020, also known as Oregon’s Cap and Trade Bill. The bill passed out of its legislative committee last week and would incentivize farmers to engage in climate change mitigation tactics. Check in next week for a discussion of the bill’s implications for small farmers!

SNAP Match Bill Introduced

Eamon Molloy

Two identical bills, HB 2837 (link) and SB 727 (link), have been introduced in the Oregon Legislature this week. These bills direct the Department of Human Services to adopt a program to provide financial assistance to recipients of supplemental nutrition assistance (SNAP) for purchasing locally grown fruits and vegetables from participating farmers' markets, farm share sites and selected retail outlets in under-served areas. The programs will match the amounts a recipient spends on eligible foods using SNAP funds. The bill provides $3 million in funds and will take effect July 1, 2019, if passed.

These bills, the result of efforts of The Farmers Market Fund (link), Oregon Food Bank (link), and Oregon Farmers Markets Association (link), builds on The Farmers Market Fund's successful statewide pilot program that ran from 2015-2018. Ninety percent of SNAP customers reported that they were able to purchase more fruits and vegetables because of the match program. Usage of Double Up Food Bucks (DUFB) grew 10% at the Hillsdale Farmers’ Market last year. But SNAP token purchases grew 20% in the same year. The $10 match has a very real multiplier effect and really helps neighbors with limited income purchase healthy food.

What can you do right now? You can contact your state legislators. If you are not sure who is representing you, just enter your address here (link) and you can find out. You can also help spread the word in the community. Here is a one page flyer you can send to friends (link). We will be following this bill as it works its way through the legislature and will have updates in upcoming issues of The Grapevine.

In Memoriam - Josh Kadish

Eamon Molloy

josh Kadish.png

Josh Kadish was a mediator, attorney, musician, husband and father extraordinaire. Born in NYC to June and Sanford Kadish, Josh grew up in Salt Lake City, Michigan, Cambridge, and Berkeley, CA. Josh met the love of his life, Lisa Maas, at age 16, playing oboe in the Berkeley High School Orchestra.  Music was a central part of his life, and he was an outstanding classical and folk/rock musician.   Throughout his adult life, he sang in choirs with Lisa (most recently the Bach Cantata Choir) and in a barbershop quartet called “the Sandals” (a tribute to Josh’s favorite footwear, usually worn with white socks) that performed at benefits, senior residences, and community gatherings. He sang his original songs about love, food, and aging from his album “Middle Aged Guy with a Guitar”, entertaining audiences at Seattle’s Folklife Festival, Hillsdale Farmers Market, and other locales.   

After graduating from Haverford College, playing oboe semi-professionally, dropping out of Oxford, and trying his hand at carpentry, Josh pursued a career in law. He received his JD from Stanford University in 1979 and then clerked for the Oregon Supreme Court.  In 1983, he joined and soon became partner at Meyer & Wyse LLP, which later became Wyse Kadish LLP. Josh was a founding board member of Oregon Mediation Association and served as an officer on the board for over a decade.  He received the prestigious Sidney Lezak Award, and was consistently named one of Oregon’s Super Lawyers and recognized on the Best Lawyers in America list. In 2014, he was their Lawyer of the Year for Family Mediation. Josh taught family law, negotiation, and mediation for over 25 years as an adjunct professor at Lewis and Clark’s Northwestern School of Law. He was committed to mentoring young attorneys throughout his career, and for many years, he regularly volunteered helping indigent immigrants at Legal Aid.

Josh’s professional accomplishments never interfered with his devotion to creating a loving family with Lisa, parenting their three sons--Nathan, Seth and Jonathan--- in his consistently good-natured and supportive way. He cheerfully participated in their interests and shared his own – going to concerts, playing Frisbee and chess, doing crosswords, delighting in ants and birds, reading voraciously, singing, and practicing musical instruments. He was a fabulous cook, specializing in meals that cleaned out everything in the freezer.

Josh was passionately committed to community work, serving as president of the board of Neighborhood House, Chamber Music Northwest, Hillsdale Farmers Market, and Young Musicians and Artists, and being an active member on numerous other boards. On Saturday mornings, he was often spotted picking up litter around Hillsdale, and he actively supported the Hillsdale Farmers Market since its founding, setting up early in the morning, rain or shine, and playing music which engaged market visitors, young and old.

 He had a reputation in the community for his integrity, dedication, and fairness. He was also unpretentious, generous and kind, with a wry and quirky sense of humor, a prodigious knowledge of obscure facts and word definitions (sometimes made up), and an unfaltering readiness to help out in whatever capacity he could.  

After 15 months of living with intention and gratitude for all he had been able to experience in his life, Josh died with dignity, surrounded by family, on October 7th, 2018.  “It’s been a great trip,” he said calmly, as he drifted off. Josh is survived by family all of whom loved and admired him deeply--his wife, sons, daughters-in-law (Lindsay, Dana, and Connie), grandchildren (Henry, Franklin, and August), brother (Peter), and many devoted relatives and friends of all ages. A celebration of his life will be held in the Eliot Chapel at the First Unitarian Church of Portland on December 15th at 10:00 AM. In lieu of flowers, please donate to Neighborhood House in Josh’s name.

Consumer Demand for Fruits & Vegetables

Jacqui Stork

Last week we discussed the low percentage of U.S. farm land allocated for growing fruits and vegetables, and how that could contribute to a higher price point for those products. Today, we'll touch on the impact consumers have on the market for fruits and vegetables.

Typically, when demand for a product or service is lower than supply, the price will fall. But, what happens when low demand seems to be a driver of a shrinking supply? In the case of specialty agricultural crops, like fruits and vegetables, we end up with an equilibrium price that is higher than that of other products.

American consumption of fruit and veggies is well below what is recommended by the federal government. In the case of MyPlate (USDA), the guideline stipulates that you should make "half your plate fruits and vegetables" and the Centers For Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) the recommendation is to eat 1-2 cups of fruit plus 2-3 cups vegetables daily. If you're curious about what the CDC recommendation looks like in "real food" terms, check out this piece by The Kitchn which shows exactly how simple it can be to meet this requirement.

Unfortunately, the average American isn't getting anywhere close. In fact, just 10% of American adults met the CDC recommendation in 2018, down significantly from almost 30% in 20101. This trending down is especially apparent amongst adults 45 years and older, and is even more acute for those over the age of 652. One speculated reason for this decline is the reliance on convenience food items (like pizza, packaged pastas, or other one-dish meals) that eschew the traditional "center cut with vegetable side" meal template2.

In short, we've changed the way we eat. A recent Harvard Business Review report shares that just 10% of us self-identity as people who love to cook3. Preparing fresh produce (especially vegetables) requires a fairly significant investment of time, knowledge, and skill - peeling, chopping, cooking, etc. When you consider those two facts - that most Americans don't love cooking and that preparing vegetables takes work - it's unsurprising that many of us are opting out. When this information is then coupled with the preponderance of convenience foods available, its hard to feel shocked that the average adult in the U.S. eats just 1 serving of vegetables per day2.

This lack of consumer engagement provides disincentives for farmers who may otherwise be interested in growing these crops, which may help explain why such a small percentage of farm land is used for growing fruit and vegetables. Using an economic model developed at Purdue, one study estimated that if consumption increased to the point where Americans met the federal guidelines, farmers would increase growth of these products by 88%4. It's a classic catch-22: if people ate more fruit and vegetables, they could potentially be produced at a lower cost, thus encouraging people to eat more fruits and vegetables.

At the same time, produce is the most commonly wasted farm product we have. This occurs at all levels of the food supply chain. Farmers regularly leave produce unharvested in the field, there are many reasons for this but one that is commonly cited is the expectation by consumers of a "perfect" product. If produce is not symmetrical, blemish-free, bright, right-sized, and otherwise beautiful it is left in the field, kept out of the market, or not selected by consumers. The cost of producing this product doesn't go away, however. Farmers, knowing that they will ultimately "over-plant" each season must price their remaining product accordingly (read: more expensively).

Farmers' market and other direct-to-consumer shoppers already eat a greater quantity and variety of fresh produce than the average American5, but even we can do better. When it comes to food, we have a real opportunity to vote with our dollars. By choosing to invest in high-quality fresh produce, we can tell farmers that we want more of these foods. By looking past blemishes, weird shapes, or other so-called "imperfections" we can help circumvent some of the waste that drives up their cost.

Getting your "Five a Day" is not that hard, and more than half of all Oregonians aren't even doing that.

We can, and should, do better.



1 https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/downloads/fruits-vegetables/2018/2018-fruit-vegetable-report-508.pdf

2 http://www.pbhfoundation.org/pdfs/about/res/pbh_res/State_of_the_Plate_2015_WEB_Bookmarked.pdf

3 https://hbr.org/2017/09/the-grocery-industry-confronts-a-new-problem-only-10-of-americans-love-cooking

4 https://www.ucsusa.org/news/press_release/less-corn-more-fruits-and-vegetables-0378.html#.W6vsWhNKgWo

5 https://farmersmarketcoalition.org/report-on-direct-to-consumer-fruits-and-vegetable-purchasing/

Labor & The Food System

Eamon Molloy

Last week we discussed some of the ways that the federal farm subsidy and crop insurance programs affect farmers and the food system. Specifically, we looked at how these policies impact the cost of food. If you didn't get a chance to read it yet, we'd suggest going back (and while you're at it, check out the Farm Bill update too). These aren't required for understanding where we're going today, but they'll sure help. You can find the back issues linked below. We should also note that, for the purposes of this series, we've decided to focus primarily on the costs and considerations associated with producing fresh produce - but that doesn't mean producers of meat, dairy, or other animal products aren't facing the same (and additional!) challenges when bringing food to market.

One of the most important inputs in bringing our food from seed to table is people power, and it gets expensive. This holds especially true for specialty crops like fruits and vegetables. Across all types of farming, hired farm wages represented about 14% of total expenditures in 2016. For farms specializing in fruit and/or vegetable production, this cost was closer to 39% [1].

Why is there such a big difference? Well, a lot of hands are involved in the process of planting, growing, harvesting, and selling produce. In general, fruits and vegetables are more delicate and require more careful handling than, say, any of the five commodity crops. Because of this, calorie-for-calorie more industrial crops can be produced per acre - with less effort. As one article on the mechanization of agriculture puts it, we're way better at producing corn than lettuce[2].

Foods produced as part of the industrial agriculture system, like commodity crops, are often grown in what's known as a mono-culture or duo-culture, meaning that just one or two crops are grown on a vast acreage of land. Additionally, crops grown in this way are usually planted in evenly spaced rows.

All this makes it easier for producers to rely on machines (instead of human labor) for many of the necessary steps in the production process. Contrast this with the labor involved on a smaller, diverse, mixed-crop farm, like those who attend farmers' markets. Last year, Gathering Together Farm published the Life of a GTF Tomato which outlines the lifecycle of the tomato crop. It is a great example of the hard work required to bring us produce each week. (Read the blog as soon as possible, it's truly eye-opening.) The short version? Every step of the process - from seed selection, to planting, to maintenance, to delivery, to sale - is done, meticulously, by hand. This takes a level of skilled labor unmatched by anything you'd see on an industrial farm operation. It also take A LOT of time.

It's not impossible to increase efficiency by incorporating technology into growing produce, and even most small farms rely on machines to some extent, but the applications are fewer and further between. One reason for this is the delicate and methodical nature of produce production.  But another reason is a lack of investment in technological research on the part of the federal government.

Even though specialty crops make up a quarter of the value of farm products in the U.S., less than 15% of federal research and development funding has been directed to this sector over the past several decades[2]. As a result, the efficiency of growing grains has increased much faster than for vegetables. More research could help vegetable farmers build better infrastructure and increase production of the foods we're told we should eat. Starting with the 2008 Farm Bill, the government has made strides to close the research investment gap - now $400M of the $3B annual agriculture research budget is dedicated for specialty crops2. This could pay off in reduced labor cost for farmers. Current USDA research projects include testing robots to harvest, select, and package apples; flavor improvements for commercial tomatoes; and changes to packaged lettuces and spinach[2].

It's unlikely that any of our farmers will be using apple-picking robots to harvest, but technological advances do have a way of trickling down.

And, the need for alternatives to people-power may soon reach its peak. About half of all U.S. farm labor is legally authorized to work here, and hired crop workers are even most likely to have been born outside of the U.S.[1]. "Enforcement only" immigration policies, such as those being practiced by the current administration, put pressure on an already shrinking workforce. One 2014 study estimated that the lack of a skilled workforce could lead to up to 40% revenue loss for fruit and vegetable farmers[3]. In the short term, this has already been brought to bear. Since 2016, farmers have experienced a net income loss of 9%[4]. Many producers are unable to expand acreage, or even meet the yield of previous seasons, because they can't replace the skilled labor that has traditionally been done by undocumented immigrants. It is not uncommon for farmers to leave 15-20% of their product unharvested, and this number could go even higher if these trends continue[4]. A smaller supply of produce could lead to higher prices for consumers.


Even so, this pales in comparison to the human cost of such policies. In Oregon, 87,000 people are employed within the agricultural system - and much of the workforce is made up of families who have been living undocumented in our state since the 1990s or early 2000s[5]. Last spring, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) began a series of raids in farming regions that led to the detainment and deportation of immigrants with children and spouses that are U.S. citizens5. This means that families have been separated and entire communities have been living in fear.


By shopping at farmers' markets and supporting small, local agriculture we are somewhat removed from these challenges. But, we don't exist in a vacuum. Try as we might to build a better food system, the truth is that farmers' markets and small family farms remain a tiny portion of our larger food environment and are therefore affected by the larger forces and policies at work. We're affected by changes in technology that enable to further mechanization of industrial agriculture, widening the price gap between commercial and locally produced foods. Similarly, we're affected when immigration policies change the shape and size of the overall agricultural workforce. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we're affected when those who the put food on our tables are being forced, en masse, to leave homes, families, and communities that they've built over decades.

[1]USDA Economic Research Service (2016)


[2] Politico (2017)


[3] Modern Farmer (2017)


[4] Food & Wine (2017)


[5] The Oregonian (2017)


Farm Subsidies & Federal Crop Insurance

Eamon Molloy


With the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, Franklin Roosevelt signed into law what would become one of the largest and longest running safety net programs in America. The program began as a way to temporarily support struggling farmers and boost the economy during the Great Depression, but its central tenets - namely, paying farmers to not produce and guaranteed purchase by the government - were codified into law as part of the every 5 years Farm Bill in 1938[1].


In the years since, parts of the food system have circumvented the normal rules of supply and demand because they have been deemed too important to fail. The vast majority of farm subsidy dollars are directed towards just five crops: corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, and rice[2]. When these so-called commodity crops are over-produced, the U.S. government steps in to purchase at a guaranteed price, and store the excess until it is needed. The program is designed to artificially limit supply and create a price floor so that farmers can continue production even in "lean" years. Essentially, the volatile swings inherent in an industry that is dependent on so many uncontrollable factors (i.e. weather, soil conditions, larger economic forces, etc.) are smoothed by the various programs in the subsidy system. Farmers are guaranteed an income, and consumers are guaranteed a product - stored product can be released and sold in times of  shortage.


But, the system that was designed to support family farmers hasn't worked as intended. Over the years, the major elements that make up the patchwork of the subsidy program have been adjusted and rearranged, but the problem remains that two-thirds of all subsidy payments are made to large-scale, wealthier-than-average producers of the five commodity crops. Small farmers, even those who do produce one or more of the commodity crops, are unlikely to reap the benefits. Fruits, vegetables, and meats are considered "specialty" products and do not qualify for the vast majority of subsidy programs. You would be hard-pressed to find a vendor at the Hillsdale Farmers' Market who is able to participate in federal subsidy programs outside of the crop insurance that they've bought into (and even that would be a stretch). The top 3% of farms receive 40% of all subsidy payments annually2.


Unfortunately, the Federal Crop Insurance Program hasn't proven to be much more equitable. Through this program, producers can purchase insurance policies that protect them in the event of a revenue loss due to crop loss or a drop in price[3]. Despite the fact that policies exist for over 100 crops, payments for producers of the commodity crops make up over two-thirds of all payouts3. Farmers pay just 40% of the premium (the other 60% is subsidized by taxpayers). In effect, the Federal Crop Insurance Program operates as a subsidy given that taxpayers foot the bill for over half of the premium, and are also responsible for a large portion of the payment to farmers in the event of revenue loss3. 


To be clear, we fully understand the importance of mitigating risk for farmers. We need producers to keep our country fed and our economy moving forward. There are so many uncontrollable factors in the farming industry that it makes perfect sense to provide a safety net for a sector that has such a large net impact on our society. A system in which 3% of farms receive 40% of payments doesn't make sense. Neither does a system in which five crops are kept (artificially) viable. Fruits and vegetables are widely regarded, even by the USDA, as the basis for a healthful diet. Yet these items are considered a specialty and their producers are given little, if any, financial support from the federal government.


So what is the impact of these policies on the cost of our food?


Truthfully, it's unclear. There is disagreement among economists, food scholars, and popular foodies over how much impact farm subsidies have on food prices. Many, Michael Pollan included, claim that these policies are directly responsible for the fact that unhealthier, processed foods are far cheaper than fresh fruits and vegetables. This argument does hold water, given that farm subsidies do encourage the production of commodity crops even when they're not truly "profitable". In contrast with the originally stated intent to control the supply and stabilize the market, decades of farm policy have led to a huge oversupply of the commodity crops[4]. Thus, these foods are incredibly cheap and wind up in all kinds of products at the grocery store.


But, others estimate that the impact is just a few cents on the dollar per calorie produced[5]. Tamar Haspel doesn't dispute the mechanism, but begs the question of scale when discussing the impact of subsidies on the cost of food. In an analysis based on the total cost to produce various food items, she argues that the value of subsidies for corn, soy, and wheat hovered around 10% of the crops' total value in 20165.


As with most things, the truth is likely somewhere in the middle. It is undeniable that commodity crops are much less costly to produce, and are therefore cheaper for consumers at the store. While subsidies surely have an impact, there are myriad other factors at play - the labor associated with production, yield per acre, cost of inputs during the growing cycle, transportation & refrigeration costs, and more. Keep that in mind because we'll explore some of these factors in next week's Grapevine.


Even if there is disagreement over the magnitude of the impact, there is widespread agreement that the current system is broken. Critics from a variety of backgrounds - including farmers, environmental advocates, nutritionists, policymakers, and economists - agree that too much taxpayer money is spent lining the pockets of wealthy farm operators[6]. This also means that too little is used to support the small and medium producers who bring us "specialty" crops.


There have been limits for the past 30 years on the amount of money operations could receive from subsidy payments. There are many loopholes that savvy producers have used to exceed the $125,000 limit each year, but in theory these limits do exist[7]. Whether or not they continue on after the 2018 Farm Bill is passed will be interesting to see. The version that passed the House would remove the cap and allow mega-farms to collect an unlimited amount of subsidy payments. It also seeks to eliminate funding for the education program that helps farmers to conduct risk assessments and reduce their own risk at the ground level7. At the same time, the Senate version provides hope: certain provisions seek to close existing loopholes and tighten eligibility requirements for subsidy and crop insurance payments.


The U.S. is far from creating policies that reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for farmers and consumers, proposed changes to the federal subsidy and crop insurance programs do not include increasing payments for specialty crops, but reducing payments for wealthy commodity producers is a start.



[1] The Salt: https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2011/09/26/140802243/the-farm-bill-from-charitable-start-to-prime-budget-target

[2] https://farm.ewg.org/subsidyprimer.php

[3] https://farm.ewg.org/crop_insurance_analysis.php

[4] https://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/you-are-what-you-grow/

[5] https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/food/im-a-fan-of-michael-pollan-but-on-one-food-policy-argument-hes-wrong/2017/12/04/c71881ca-d6cd-11e7-b62d-d9345ced896d_story.html?utm_term=.9417904506c3

[6] https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/food/why-do-taxpayers-subsidize-rich-farmers/2018/03/15/50e89906-27b6-11e8-b79d-f3d931db7f68_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.c65d951ecc26

[7] http://sustainableagriculture.net/blog/2018-farm-bill-commodities/

An Update on the 2018 Farm Bill

Jacqui Stork

Back in May, we shared a story about the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and its relationship to the Farm Bill, a large-scale appropriations act that is responsible for the bulk of federal agricultural policy in America. At that time, no bill had been passed in either chamber of the Congress and it seemed unlikely that we would get a new package before the expiration of the 2014 Farm Bill (actually passed in 2015) on September 30, 2018.


It is still unclear whether or not the 2018 Farm Bill will meet the deadline for passage, and a lot has changed since May. What follows is a brief (read: not comprehensive) update on the 2018 Farm Bill and a look to what we can expect to learn in the coming weeks.


Both the House & Senate have passed versions of the 2018 Farm Bill -

And these versions are very different from each other.


The House passed the exact same bill that was proposed in April and defeated in May. Passed it narrowly, with zero Democratic support and losing 20 Republican members of the caucus[1]. While our earlier piece focused primarily on the impact of the House Bill on SNAP, there were plenty of other "goodies" in there that farming advocates didn't want to see passed. These include the elimination of mandatory funding for a number of programs that support small farming operations; reduced support for programs like farm-to-school and produce prescriptions; expanded loopholes for subsidy and crop insurance programs that primarily benefit large commodity producers; and reduced incentives for farm-based conservation efforts[2].


To be clear, these are just a few of the most egregious examples of turning the clock backwards. On the day of its passage, Portland Congressional Representative Earl Blumenauer summed up his feelings, tweeting: "Another shameful day in the House. GOP turns its back on family farmers & our most vulnerable & passes GOP Farm Bill.".


A week later (June 28th) the Senate passed a version of the bill that is... not so bad. Actually, this version contrasted the House bill from the very beginning thanks to its standing as a popular, bipartisan piece of legislation that passed with 86 votes. Most notably, the Senate version does not include the work requirements and other restrictions to the SNAP program proposed by the House. It also maintains or increases investments in key conservation efforts; tightens eligibility restrictions for subsidy payments; and maintains funding levels for local food promotion programs[3].


In short, the Senate version preserves the Farm Bill as a critical piece of the social safety net for both producers and consumers, while the House version does not. What comes next is an effort to reconcile the two bills in a Conference Committee before a single version will go to a vote in both chambers.


And Now They'll Have to Compromise -

By early August, both chambers had announced their membership for the Conference Committee - a group which will work towards a negotiated bill that can be voted on by the full Congress[4]. They'll be working towards a consensus and compromise through a combination of public and closed-door meetings on the many key issues listed above. Additionally, the smaller discrepancies between the two bills will have to be negotiated as well. In the end, a majority of members from both the House and Senate committees must approve a single, consolidated farm bill to be introduced for a vote.


The National Sustainable Agricultural Coalition (NSAC)[5] provides a detailed breakdown of the major gaps that will need to be bridged before a final version can be voted on. In it, they also include handy, easy-to-read charts that contrast major provisions from the two bills plus their own policy recommendations. Unsurprisingly, NSAC is far more closely aligned with the version proposed by the Senate on every major provision.


Largely thanks to the quick passage of the Senate bill, there is hope that the 2018 Farm Bill will pass before the current version expires. But, since we're waiting on compromise by both chambers and the signature by the president, it's not likely. There are some major differences across the two bills, and areas in which it would be dangerous (or at the very least be a slippery slope) for the Senate to compromise on. It is also difficult to know exactly where the bill stands, because there hasn't been a peep from the conference committee. Other members of the Congress, and the general public, are still able to comment in an effort to shape the final piece of legislation.


What's Next?

In the coming weeks, we'll explore some of the issues related to the cost of food, including: subsidies, advertising, labor, and conservation. Each of these is deeply connected with and impacted by what happens with the Farm Bill, so you can expect that we'll refer back over and over again. As more news is made related to the 2018 Farm Bill, we'll share that too.


In the meantime, if you're interested in learning more about the history and contents of the farm bill, check out this video by the Food & Environment Reporting Network (FERN)[6].

[1] http://sustainableagriculture.net/blog/farm-bill-house-senate-2018/

[2] http://sustainableagriculture.net/blog/chairmans-mark-local-food-rd/

[3] https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/senate-passes-sweeping-farm-bill-setting-up-fight-with-house/2018/06/28/0007d532-7aff-11e8-80be-6d32e182a3bc_story.html?utm_term=.2b184555f976

[4] http://sustainableagriculture.net/blog/farm-bill-conference-committee/

[5] http://sustainableagriculture.net/blog/farm-bill-conference-guide/

[6] https://thefern.org/2018/06/what-is-the-farm-bill-and-why-does-it-matter/

The Farm Direct Nutrition Program

Jacqui Stork

Farmers Direct Nutrition Program funding is used to provide vouchers for low-income seniors and WIC families to purchase additional fresh fruits & vegetables at farmers markets. The dual aims of this program are to: increase the purchase of local fresh fruit and vegetables among eligible limited-income households and to increase awareness and patronage of local farmers' markets and farm stands.

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What’s in a name? Certification labels in the market

Eamon Molloy

Shopping at the farmers market or in a grocery, you’ll find a variety of labels and claims. Some farms and food artisans enroll in a certification program to verify the claims they make about their products. We’ll explore each certification more deeply in future issues. For now, here’s a short overview of the most common certification labels you’ll find in the market.

Organic – The use of the word “organic” on labels is regulated by the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990. As defined by the United States Dept of Agriculture (USDA),

"Organic is a labeling term for food or other agricultural products that have been produced using cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that support the cycling of on-farm resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity in accordance with the USDA organic regulations. This means that organic operations must maintain or enhance soil and water quality, while also conserving wetlands, woodlands, and wildlife. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be used."

Any operation, or portion of operation, that produces or handles crops, livestock, livestock products, or other agricultural products that are intended to be sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” must be certified organic by a USDA-accredited certifying agent.

Businesses with selling less than $5,000 worth of organic products a year are exempt from certification. The most common accredited certifying agents used by farms and producers at the market are Oregon Tilth, Oregon Dept of Agriculture and Washington Dept of Agriculture.

Learn more about the National Organic Program: https://www.ams.usda.gov/programs-offices/national-organic-program

Animal Welfare Approved by AGW – This certification is applied to meat, dairy and egg products. Farms and ranches must provide animals with continual access to pasture or range so they can perform natural and instinctive behaviors essential to their health and well-being. The farms and ranches submit to an annual third-party audit to verify compliance with the standards. Learn more about Animal Welfare Approved: https://agreenerworld.org/solutions-and-certificates/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Grassfed by AGW – This certification is an optional addition to the Certified Animal Welfare Approved by AGW for beef and dairy cattle, meat and dairy sheep, meat and dairy goat and bison. Certified Grassfed by AGW is the only certification in the US that guarantees the animals are fed a 100 percent grass and forage diet through an annual farm audit. Learn more about  Certified Grassfed by AGW: https://agreenerworld.org/solutions-and-certificates/certified-grass-fed/

Certified Naturally Grown – Certified Naturally Grown (CNG) was founded in 2002 to offer a complement to the National Organic Program (NOP). CNG is tailored for direct market farms. Standards are based on the NOP but Certified Naturally Grown is not affiliated with NOP. CNG certified farms are required to be fully committed to robust organic practices. Unlike the other labels, Certified Naturally Grown uses a peer review model of audits rather than the third-party required for certification under the USDA National Organic program. Learn more about Certified Naturally Grown: https://www.cngfarming.org


SNAP and the Farm Bill

Jacqui Stork

Funding for SNAP is allocated and approved through the omnibus Farm Bill, thus named because it consolidates the appropriation of funding for several programs and projects into a single package - a vote for one is a vote for all. 

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Success with Tomatoes

Sarah West

Tomatoes are not hard to grow, but they do need thought and attention. The key ingredients to tomato success in our area are:


  • ·      Selecting the right varieties

Our area is not ideal for growing tomatoes, because tomatoes need warm nights that stay above 65°F, or even better above 70°F. That doesn’t happen here. The last summer we lived in the Washington D.C. area, the low was 89°F one night. Which would you rather have, our pleasant cool nights, or the widest possible selection of tomato varieties? I choose cool nights, since there are still (really!) thousands of tomato varieties to choose from. The classic Brandywines, Cherokee Purples, Mortgage Lifters and the Hybrid Beefsteaks are only going to give us ripe tomatoes in September, if then. But we can have Prudens Purple, Victoria, Astiana, and Anna Russian, which are every bit as wonderful as the best known heirlooms. And some of them qualify as heirlooms themselves, being more than 100 years old.


We grow early and mid-season varieties, as do the other tomato plant vendors at the Hollywood, Hillsdale, and Peoples Co-op Market. Feel free to ask when you can expect tomatoes from the variety you choose. But don’t expect a very precise answer, since it all depends on “degree days,” a measure of how many warm hours we will have between now and tomato time. Early tomatoes are usually ready before the end of July, and mid-season tomatoes in August. Gales Creek, where we have our farm, is colder than Portland. The cool air from the top of the Coast Range comes down the Gales Creek Canyon every night in summer and settles on our fields. So if a tomato works for us, it will work for a garden in Portland.


If you can only grow your tomatoes in pots, choose varieties that have been bred to grow well in pots. We have ten varieties that do splendidly in pots. Some of them are from a group of enthusiastic breeders participating in the Dwarf Tomato Project, and all of these are enrolled in the Open Source Seed Initiative, which should keep them out of the clutches of the greedy seed monopolists. Some of them have funny names like Brandy Fred and Sarandipity.


  • ·      Choosing the right location

Tomatoes need good soil and as much sun as they can get. At least ten hours of sun a day is ideal, and six hours is the absolute minimum. If your garden area is too shady to provide that, pick a sunnier spot and grow container varieties. Some tomatoes that do fairly well with less than ten hours a day are Sungold, Uralskiy Ranniy, Stupice, Victoria, Latah and Katya. Cherry tomatoes are usually more tolerant of less than 10 hours than bigger ones.


If your tomato location has not been used as a garden spot before, put off getting your tomato plants and spend some time preparing it. Remove a layer of sod (or all the weeds if that is what is there). Dig in generous amounts of your own or purchased compost.


  • ·      Proper transplanting

Tomatoes like to be “planted deep.” That means you can take off the bottom leaves and bury the bottom 1/3 to ½ of the stem. Some people like to plant them horizontally, so that part of the buried stem is in the very top layer of the soil. This is fine.  Tomatoes need to be 2 to 2½ feet apart. You can fill the space between with lettuce or basil.


Dig a hole quite a bit deeper than the pot the tomato is in. Put in half a cup of complete organic fertilizer.  We use the Steve Solomon mix, named after the founder of Territorial Seeds.  4 parts fish meal, 1 part calcium carbonate (garden pearls), one part kelp meal, ½ part bone meal. You can get these ingredients at Portland Nursery or Naomi’s Organic Farm Supply.  Or you can used a pre-mixed organic fertilizer. Mix the fertilizer in with the soil at the bottom of the hole, and then add a few inches of soil back in. Put the tomato into the hole, and pack the soil around it by hand. Water it well. If you plant it in the middle of a hot sunny day, check it in the evening and water it again if it is wilty. It takes a day or so for the roots to take hold in a new place.


And please label your tomato plants, so you know which ones you love the most and do the best for you. You can write the name with a Sharpie on a canning jar lid and tie it to the cage or affix it to a stick.


  • ·      Watering

The conventional wisdom, which will serve you well, is that tomatoes need to be watered consistently until the fruit starts to show a little color. Then you can cut back or cease watering completely. Consistent watering means watering very well, and then not watering again until the top of the soil is dry to the touch. If a young plant starts to wilt, watering will bring it back with no harm done. If a plant gets to the crunchy stage, it is probably a goner. Tomatoes grown with inconsistent watering may develop blossom end rot. The treatment for that is to cut the bad part off and enjoy the rest.


We are working with Oregon State on some dry farming research. Last year we had great success with Champagne Bubbles and Early Girls that were grown with absolutely no irrigation after they were planted. Yields were lower than with irrigated tomatoes, but still generous, and the flavor was amazing.  We are trying more varieties in our dry patch this year, and at least 20 other farms throughout the Willamette Valley are all participating in the research.  So there will be more news for next season!


  • ·      Pruning and support

Most of the tomato plants we grow are indeterminate, which means they like a cage or another means of support. Do not waste your money on flimsy cages. Tomato plants get big and heavy and need real support. We use heavy-duty cages for our cherry tomatoes.  We make bamboo pyramid structures for the others. We tie the stems to the bamboo with cut-up socks and t-shirts. String is bad; it will cut into the stems. There are many good methods for supporting tomatoes; the Internet is full of them. And it is not against the law to let them sprawl if you have room. The disadvantages of sprawling tomatoes are that they are harder to pick and more subject to slug damage.


We prune the cherry tomatoes lightly if at all. With all the other tomatoes, we prune out the suckers. Those are the wanna-be stems that grow in the armpits between the main stem and the leaves. Our goal is to have one stem per tomato plant, but we often end up with two or three. That’s ok. What you don’t want is twenty or more stems, because then the plant will devote itself to growing foliage rather than fruit. Around Labor Day, it’s a good idea to cut off the growing point of each stem, since any tomato blossom that appears after that is too late to produce a tomato.  When you cut off the growing points, the plant concentrates on ripening the remaining fruit.


  • ·      Harvesting

It’s ideal to pick tomatoes when they are dead ripe if they are going to be eaten or preserved that day. But picking them when they have good color but are still a bit firm will not result in diminished flavor, and will allow more flexibility in when they are used. If you are growing a variety you have not tried before, it may be hard to tell when they are fully ripe. Green Zebras have dark and light green stripes throughout development, and the light green stripes turn yellow when they are ripe. Indigo Apples have some red on the bottom when they are ready. Some tomatoes have green shoulders when they fully ripe. This is good, since green shoulders and the best flavor go together genetically. A good test for ripeness is the feel – ripe tomatoes are a bit soft.  If your tomatoes are grown in a garden with other plants that need watering, pick them when they are a little under-ripe to avoid having them split.


If it rains, all of the tomatoes that are close to ripe should be picked quickly, since they will split if they stay on the plant after a rain.


If you have questions, ask them! The vendors who sell tomato plants and the Master Gardeners are more than happy to help you achieve tomato success.

How to Cook the Perfect Tomato

Sarah West

By Sarah West

Tomatoes as an ingredient hardly need an introduction. Once you’ve located a quality specimen, they are one of those foods that you want to alter as little as possible. Perhaps the only best way to eat a ripe tomato is still warm from the vine, their leaves’ zesty perfume wafting from your fingers to mingle with the fruit’s sweet sorcery. But, lucky for us, tomatoes are more versatile than that; perfection comes in many forms. The following recipes prove that a little manipulation can go a long way to heighten, enhance, and honor the essence of a perfect tomato.

Perhaps the best way to describe what to do with a good tomato is to emphasize what not to do with it: that is, keep your tomatoes out of the refrigerator. Cold temperatures obliterate the delicate texture, fragrance, and flavors of homegrown and farmers market tomatoes. Resist every temptation to put them anywhere but a shady corner of your kitchen counter, and your next tomato masterpiece is already ninety-nine percent complete.

Tomato Water – This deceptively simple sauce-juice-marinade can be enjoyed as a beverage (or cocktail mixer), poured over fresh tomato slices, as a finish for tomato risotto, or anything else you can think of that would do well by a drizzle of pure tomato mojo. (link to recipe)

Drowned Bruschetta – The key to a good bruschetta is getting the bread (aka crostini) as crisp as possible. I slice a baguette diagonally to get long, ¼-inch thick slices that I brush on both sides with olive oil. I toast them on a tray in an oven set at 250-degrees, turning them after about five minutes, until both sides are lightly golden and crisp. While the crostini cook and then cool, I slice my tomatoes into ¼-inch bits and heap them in a bowl (I like to mix colors and varieties, but whatever tomato you like best will do), drizzle them lightly with olive oil and a good balsamic vinegar, salt liberally and grind some fresh pepper on top. I turn in the seasonings with freshly torn basil and let the mixture rest a few minutes while I arrange the crostini on a plate. On top of each, I add a heaping spoonful of tomato topping (not worrying if it slides off or mingles with the topping next door—at my house, at least, bruschetta is a beautiful mess), then drizzle them with the liqueur from the bottom of the bowl, soaking the crostini and, if I’m lucky, even leaving a small pool at the bottom of the plate. A well-crisped crostini won’t get soggy; its buttery crunch gives body to the succulent tomatoes and their luxurious juice.

Tomato & Mint: Mint plays up the sweet side of tomato flavor, while the tomato’s earthier tones ground mint’s flighty disposition. Tabouli, with a parsley and bulgur backbone, makes skillful use of this spirited arrangement. But the two are also delicious just on their own, as in this simple and refreshing summer salad: (link to recipe).

Pomodori al Forno – I clipped this recipe out of Bon Appetit seven years ago and regard its dog-eared, oil-stained place in my kitchen notebook with reverence. A perfect way to ring out tomato season (at a time of year when it’s appropriate again to turn your oven on), this easy recipe feeds you twice: first with the impossibly delicious aromas it unleashes in your kitchen, and second with the mouthwatering, deeply rich accompaniment these pomodoris (and their roasting oil) make to a good crust of bread or a plate of pasta. You could pair them with something else, but I can’t imagine what could compare; whenever these are around I don’t want to eat anything else. (link to recipe)

Tomato Mania! Guide

Sarah West

by Sarah West

Each year at the height of tomato season, the market hosts one of our most popular events: Tomato Mania! Volunteers gather the day’s tomato selection from market vendors, slice them up, and spread them out with labels that state the variety name and the vendor that supplied it—comparison shopping at it’s finest! Take a moment out of your market day to explore the range of tomato flavor, savoring old favorites and discovering new ones. Below is a preview of some of the varieties we expect to be sampling this Sunday.

Cherry Tomatoes: Sweet, bite-sized, and available in a rainbow of colors, the cherry tomato category also broadly includes pear tomatoes (shaped like their namesake fruit), grape tomatoes (larger than a typical cherry tomato), and currant tomatoes (smaller than a typical cherry tomato). Bright yellow-orange ‘Sungolds’ are one of the market’s most popular varieties—possibly the sweetest, most addictive cherry tomatoes you’ll ever taste! Cherry tomatoes are best eaten fresh: out of hand, topping salads, or folded into pasta just before serving.

Purple Calabash: Green shouldered, pleated fruits with a distinctive flatness. Their flesh is nearly true purple and offers full flavor and well-balanced acidity some liken to a fruity cabernet. Delicious fresh or cooked.

Striped Roman: One of the flashier tomatoes out there, this one has it all: sweet, rich flavor and fantastic color make ‘Striped Roman’ a marvelous fresh tomato for the salad plate. Like its cousin the red Roma, its meaty flesh cooks down easily into sauce—some say this variety makes the sweetest.

Aunt Ruby’s German Green: Green tomatoes are always a hard sell since our eyes are conditioned to seek out shades of red when it comes to tomato selection. This particular green tomato will wow you with the intensity of its flavor—rich, tart, and deeply sweet it can stand up to the best of the reds. A favorite slicer among tomato connosuers, it also makes a delicious salsa verde. Listed on Slow Food’s Ark of Taste, a collection of heirloom seeds of exceptional quality, this is one beloved tomato. Look for those that are blushing a faint pink on the bottom—your cue that Aunt Ruby’s is ready for eating.

Chef’s Choice: An orange beefsteak-type, Chef’s Choice is a new hybrid tomato, an improvement on the popular heirloom, Amana Orange, which offers the same rich flavor with a quicker ripening period. A relatively new introduction, this variety was chosen as an All American Selection in 2013-2015 for its flavor and garden performance.

Cherokee Purple: This true heirloom (meaning it is not a recently developed cross of tomato characteristics but a strain whose seeds have been passed through generations of gardeners) plays up the savory side of tomato flavor: deep, rich, and earthy. Its purple skin fades to a saturated red in the tomato’s center. Curious about those green shoulders? Turns out they are a sign of superior flavor. The same genes that cause green shoulders in tomatoes are responsible for developing complexity and sweetness. The green parts may ripen much later than the rest of the tomato—don’t expect full ripening and peak flavor to coincide. Cut off the green and slice this heirloom favorite up for dinner!

Black Brandywine: The original pink ‘Brandywine’ tomato was once the poster child of heirloom tomatoes; these days it has a lot more company, but it’s still delicious! ‘Black Brandywine’ is a selection from the original strain: similar rich flavor with skin blushed purplish-brown. Great for fresh eating or cooking.

Yellow Brandywine: A yellow selection of the ‘Brandywine’ heirloom, revered for its surprisingly rich flavor and balance of sweetness and acidity. Best fresh, ‘Yellow Brandywine’ adds a lighter touch to sauces or salsas.

Rutgers: A New Jersey heirloom introduced in the 1930’s truck farming boom, Rutgers was bred as an improved field tomato: with more uniform ripening, richly flavored juice, small seed cavities, and good yields. Though it fell away from commercial popularity when firmness for shipping became the priority, Rutgers remains popular among home gardeners, who use it for fresh eating and preserving.

Orange Oxheart: Oxheart tomatoes have a reputation for offering the best of both worlds: firm, meaty flesh ideal for making salsa or sauce, along with the fragrant, acidic juiciness so coveted in a slicing tomato. This orange variety is the perfect slicer for sandwiches, fresh sauces, or pizza topping.

Pineapple: This carnival-striped tomato is what summer is all about—full-bodied tomato flavor, rich colors, and enough acidity to keep things interesting. Slice this giant to serve with anything that comes off the grill, or just eat wedges of it with nothing more than a sprinkle of salt and the juice dripping down your fingers.

Roma: A type of plum tomato, ‘Roma’ and similar varieties are the quintessential sauce tomato. Their drier flesh and smaller seed cavities concentrate into perfect sauce and are ideal for halving and slow roasting in a low-temperature oven. Synonymous with Italy, these are the home-preserver’s tomato of choice for canning whole and as sauces, ketchup, or pastes.

Note: This article was originally published in 2014 and republished in 2015.